Only registered medical doctors are allowed to practise CAM therapies, including homeopathy. Non-medically qualified practitioners can be be prosecuted under Article 348 of the Italian Penal Code, although this rarely occurs.
In its statement of 18 May 2002 the Federazione Nazionale degli Ordini dei Medici Chirurghi e degli Odontoiatri (FNOMCeO = the National Federation of the Orders of Physicians and Dentists) urged without any delay a legislative intervention by Parliament to approve specific legislation on the following non-conventional medical practices: homeopathy, acupuncture, anthroposophic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, chiropractic, homotoxicology, osteopathy, phytotherapy (herbal medicine), and traditional Chinese medicine. Both FNOMCeO and different court rulings have acknowledged homeopathic treatment as an additional medical qualification and a responsibility of a medical doctor or dentist.
The Italian Parliament has discussed several legal proposals but none of them have been adopted so far.
Directive 2001/83/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use, which includes homeopathic medicinal products, was transposed into national law by the Decreto Legislativo 24 April 2006, n. 219, the new Decree on Medicinal Products. The Italian authorities, however, blocked this process and Directive 2001/83 has not yet been fully implemented.