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Here you can find news about developments in Europe that are important for homeopathy, news from the European homeopathic community and from the ECH itself

The whole news archive is available below

High dilution effect reported in NMR study

A new study in the Journal of Molecular Liquids by Jean-Louis Demangeat at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the General Hospital in Haguenau, France reports physical modifications in the solvent of ultrahigh aqueous dilutions of histamine.

20-MHz R1 and R2 water proton NMR relaxation rates were measured in ultrahigh dilutions (range 5.43·10^-8 - 5.43·10^-48) of histamine in water (Hist-W) and in saline (Hist-Sal), prepared by iterative centesimal dilutions under vigorous agitation in controlled atmospheric conditions. Water and saline were similarly and simultaneously treated, as controls. The samples were immediately sealed in the NMR tubes after preparation, and then code-labelled. Six independent series of preparations were performed, representing about 7000 blind measurements. R2 exhibited a very broad scatter of values in both native histamine dilutions and solvents. No variation in R1 and R2 was observed in the solvents submitted to the iterative dilution/agitation process. By contrast, histamine dilutions exhibited slightly higher R1 values than solvents at low dilution, followed by a slow progressive return to the values of the solvents at high dilution.

Unexpectedly, histamine dilutions remained distinguishable from solvents up to ultrahigh levels of dilution (beyond 10^-20 in Hist-Sal). A significant increase in R2 with increased R2/R1 was observed in Hist-W. R1 and R2 were linearly correlated in solvents, but uncorrelated in histamine dilutions. After a 10-min heating/cooling cycle of the samples in their sealed NMR tubes (preventing any modification of the chemical composition and gas content), all of the relaxation variations observed as a function of dilution vanished, the R2/R1 ratio and the scatter of the R2 values dropped in all solutions and solvents, and the correlation between R1 and R2 reappeared in the Hist-W samples.

All these results pointed to a more organized state of water in the unheated samples, more pronounced in histamine solutions than in solvents, dependent on the level of dilution. It was suggested that stable supramolecular structures, involving nanobubbles of atmospheric gases and highly ordered water around them, were generated during the vigorous mechanical agitation step of the preparation, and destroyed after heating. Histamine molecules might act as nucleation centres, amplifying the phenomenon which was thus detected at high dilution levels.

 

Reference:
Demangeat J-L (2009). NMR water proton relaxation in unheated and heated ultrahigh aqueous dilutions of histamine: Evidence for an air-dependent supramolecular organization of water. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 144:32-39
[to be downloaded here]

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High dilution effect assessed by UV-Spectroscopy

A team of researchers at the Swiss Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM in collaboration with two laboratories in the USA investigated homeopathic preparations with UV-spectroscopy.

In a blinded, randomized, controlled experiment homeopathic preparations of copper sulfate (CuSO4; 11C–30C), quartz (SiO2; 10C–30C, i.e. centesimal dilution steps) and sulfur (S; 11D–30D, i.e. decimal dilution steps) and controls (one-time succussed diluent) were investigated using UV-spectroscopy and tested for contamination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

The UV transmission for homeopathic preparations of CuSO4 preparations was significantly lower than in controls. The transmission seemed to be also lower for both SiO2 and S, but not significant. UV transmission values between homeopathic preparations had a significantly higher variability compared to controls.

Thus, experimental evidence accumulates that highly diluted homeopathic preparations, i.e. diluted beyond the Avogadro limit, exhibit particular physicochemical properties different from shaken pure solvent. The exact nature of these properties is not yet known; the current working hypothesis is an increase in the solvent’s molecular dynamics for homeopathic preparations. All high-quality experimental data obtained so far by several independent working groups for different homeopathic preparations, involving studies with high- and low-field 1H NMR relaxation time, 1H-NMR-spectroscopy, and thermodynamics are compatible with this ‘dynamization hypothesis’.

Reference:
Wolf U, Wolf M, Heusser P, Thurneysen A, Baumgartner S (2009). "Homeopathic Preparations of Quartz, Sulfur and Copper Sulfate Assessed by UV-Spectroscopy," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, doi:10.1093/ecam/nep036.
[to be downloaded here]

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Proving shows significant distinction between Aconitum C30 and placebo

Just recently a new study conducted in Switzerland has significantly demonstrated a distinction between the proving symptoms of Aconitum napellus C30 and a placebo. This is another study published in an academic journal that has found substantial effects from high potencies in randomly selected, healthy test subjects when compared with placebo.

Participants and Methods:
From the 33 subjects randomized for this double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 27 could be included in the analysis. The study comprised two 7-day-long treatment periods, each including the intake of a study preparation for 3 days and a wash-out period of 4 days. One group was first treated with Aconitum napellus C30 and then with placebo; the other group received the two study preparations in the reverse order. The signs and symptoms before the first treatment and after each treatment were collected, evaluated, weighted and repertorized. Based on this classification the blinded physician assessed these signs and symptoms as study outcome parameter to represent the responses to each of the study preparations. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank test.

Results:
Crossover differences yielded statistical significance between the classified reactions towards Aconitum napellus C30 and to placebo (p = 0.004). Conclusions: A clear difference between the reported short-term reactions of healthy subjects towards Aconitum napellus C30 and towards placebo was shown. The crossover design with intra-individual comparisons proved to be adequate to recognize the study preparations and for the statistical analysis of a small population sample.

Reference:
Piltan D, Rist L, Simões-Wüst P, Saller R (2009). Test of a homeopathic dilution of Aconitum napellus. A clinical, randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover study in healthy volunteers. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 16:168-73.

[Abstract on PubMed]
[Paper can be downloaded from the publisher's website]

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Nobel Prize winner reports effects of homeopathic dilutions

In a recent study Professor Luc Montagnier, a French virologist who co-discovered HIV and who won the Nobel Prize in 2008, and his team report the results of a series of rigorous experiments investigating the electromagnetic properties of highly-diluted biological samples.

The study demonstrates that some bacterial DNA sequences are able to induce electromagnetic waves at high aqueous dilutions. It appears to be a resonance phenomenon triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves. The researchers used aqueous solutions that were agitated and serially diluted (the researchers note that the solutions were 'strongly agitated' and that this step was 'critical for the generation of signals'). In other words homeopathic potencies, although the word 'homeopathy' is not mentioned in the article.

The researchers found that pathogenic bacteria and viruses show a distinct electromagnetic signature at dilutions ranging from 10^-5 to 10^-12 (corresponding to 5D to 12D) and that small DNA fragments (responsible for pathogenicity) were solely accountable for the electromagnetic signal. The researchers also noted that one experiment found significant effects from dilutions as high as 10^-18 (equivalent to 18D).  The electromagnetic signature changed with dilution levels but was unaffected by the initial concentration and remained even after the remaining DNA fragments were destroyed by chemical agents.

They observed that the electromagnetic signal was destroyed by heating or freezing the sample. Also, a 'cross-talk' effect was found whereby a negative sample inhibits the positive signal in another sample if they are left together overnight in a shielded container. The researchers propose that specific aqueous nanostructures form in the samples during the dilution process and are responsible for the electromagnetic effects measured.

The researchers also detected the same electromagnetic signals in the plasma and in the DNA extracted from the plasma of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

This study is an important contribution to the growing evidence base in fundamental research with direct relevance to homeopathy.

Reference
Montagnier L, Aissa J, Ferris S, Montagnier J-L, Lavallee C (2009). Electromagnetic Signals Are Produced by Aqueous Nanostructures Derived from Bacterial DNA Sequences. Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences, 1: 81-90.
[the paper can be downloaded here]

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Individualised homeopathy as effective as Prozac

A research group at the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil recently demonstrated that the effectiveness of individualized homeopathy was statistically equivalent to fluoxetine (Prozac), a standard effective treatment in acute depression.

Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg per day (up to 40 mg per day) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial.

Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P1/40.654) and 8th weeks (P1/40.965) of treatment.

Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy–fluoxetine) were 3.04 (95% CI 6.95, 0.86) and 2.4 (95% CI 6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in the homeopathy group vs. the fluoxetine group.

Patients treated with fluoxetine reported more troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic medicines as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients with moderate to severe depression.

The study can be downloaded here.

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