You are here: Home Research Basic research Biological models

Biological models

One of the main areas of basic research in homeopathy has been in in-vitro or in-vivo biological models of the action of ultra-molecular dilutions and their potential mechanisms of action, including the Similia principle (the concept of treating like with like).

Similia principle

The validity of the similia principle as a specific type of regulation is essential to characterise homeopathy as a regulation therapy. Evidence from experiments, both human and animal, demonstrates that all substances (including pesticides and carcinogens) which show an inhibitory effect at high concentrations, have a stimulatory effect at low concentrations. This phenomenon is called hormesis and occurs in all biological domains tested, with growing research support (Bellavite; Calabrese). In pharmacology, acute and chronic effects of drugs often have opposite action (paradoxical pharmacology: Bond), and many modern pharmaceutical agents display paradoxical secondary or rebound effects (Teixeira). Up to now, relatively few studies have been performed in this field. The most significant ones were conducted at the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, which were able to show that self-recovery on the cellular level is stimulated by small doses of threatening conditions applied according to the similia principle (Van Wijk, Wiegant).

Bellavite P, Andrioli G, Lussignoli S, Signorini A, Ortolani R, Conforti A (1997). Scientific reappraisal of the ‘Principle of Similarity’. Medical Hypotheses, 49: 203-212. [PubMed]

Bellavite P, Ortolani R, Pontarollo F, Conforti A, Pitari G (2007). Immunology and Homeopathy. 5. The Rationale of the ‘Simile’. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4:149–163. [PubMed]

Calabrese EJ (2010). Hormesis is central to toxicology, pharmacology and risk assessment. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 29:249–261.[PubMed]

Calabrese EJ, Blain R (2005). The occurrence of hormetic dose responses in the toxicological literature, the hormesis database: an overview. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 202:289-301.[PubMed]

Calabrese EJ (2005). Hormetic dose-response relationships in immunology: occurrence, quantitative features of the dose response, mechanistic foundations, and clinical implications. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 35:89–295.[PubMed]

Calabrese EJ (2005). Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences. Environmental Pollution, 138:379-412.[PubMed]

Bond RA (2001). Is paradoxical pharmacology a strategy worth pursuing? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 22:273-276.[PubMed]

Teixeira M (2003). Homeopathic use of modern medicines: utilisation of the curative rebound effect. Medical Hypotheses, 60:276-283.[PubMed]

Van Wijk R, Wiegant FAC (1994). Cultured mammalian cells in homeopathic research -The similia principle in self-recovery, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Van Wijk R, Wiegant FAC (1997) The similia principle in surviving stress; mammalian cells in homeopathy research, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Van Wijk R, Wiegant FAC (1997). The similia principle as a therapeutic strategy: a research programme on stimulation of self-defense in disordered mammalian cells. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3:33-39. [PubMed]

Van Wijk R, Wiegant FA (2010). Postconditioning hormesis and the homeopathic Similia principle: molecular aspects. Human and experimental toxicology, 29:561-565. [PubMed]

Van Wijk R, Wiegant FA (2011). Postconditioning hormesis and the similia principle. Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition), 3:1128-1138.[PubMed]

Wiegant FAC, Souren JEM, Van Rijn J, Van Wijk R (1994). Stressor specific induction of heat shock protein in rat hepatoma cells. Toxicology, 94:143–159.[PubMed]

Wiegant FAC, Van Rhijn J, van Wijk R (1997). Enhancement of the stress response by minute amounts of cadmium in sensitized Reuber H35 hepatoma cells. Toxicology, 116:27-37.[PubMed]

Wiegant FAC, Spieker N, van Wijk R (1998). Stressor-specific enhancement of hsp induction by low doses of stressors in conditions of self- and cross-sensitization. Toxicology, 127:107-119.[PubMed]

Wiegant FAC, Souren J, van Wijk R (1999). Stimulation of survival capacity in heat shocked cells by subsequent exposure to minute amounts of chemical stressors; role of similarity in hsp-inducing effect. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 18:460-470.[PubMed]

Wiegant FAC, Van Wijk R (2010). The similia principle: results obtained in a cellular model system. Homeopathy, 99:3-14.[PubMed]

Wiegant FA, Prins HA, Van Wijk R (2011). Postconditioning hormesis put in perspective: an overview of experimental and clinical studies. Dose Response, 9:209-224 [PubMed]

 

 

 

Meta-analyses

A critical review and meta-analysis focused on 135 experiments published in 105 articles exploring the protective effect of homeopathic dilutions against toxins (Linde). The studies were extremely diverse and included many different experimental models: 95 experiments were conducted in animals, 29 in plants, 7 in isolated organs and 4 in-vitro. The quality of most studies was poor, but more than 70% of the high quality studies reported positive effects. The report included a meta-analysis of 26 experiments involving experimental intoxication with arsenic and mercury: the mean protection due to high dilution treatments was about 20% (CI, 6.2–33.2).

Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D, Worku F, Wagner H, Eitel F (1994). Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 13:481–492. [PubMed]

A recent meta-analysis evaluated 67 in-vitro experiments in 75 publications of research on homeopathic dilutions. A majority of them reported high-potency effects. Positive findings were obtained in nearly three-quarters of all replicated studies. Even experiments with a high methodological standard could demonstrate an effect of high potencies. However, no positive result was stable enough to be reproduced by all investigators.

Witt CM, Bluth M, Albrecht H, Weißhuhn TER, Baumgartner S, Willich SN (2007). The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies – A systematic review of the literature. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15:128–138. [PubMed]


Repeated individual high potency studies

Over 100 biochemical, immunological, botanical, cell biological and zoological studies on high potencies, i.e. beyond a dilution of 10^-23 have been performed and subjected to laboratory-internal, multicentre or independent repetition trials.

Of these, 30 are initial studies. In the attempt to reproduce one of these initial studies, 53 follow-up studies yielded comparable effects, 8 studies showed a consistent, yet different result from the initial study, and 16 studies yielded no effects. When all repetitive studies are considered, 69% reported effects comparable to that of the initial study, 10% different effects, and 21% no effects. Independently performed repetition studies reported 44% comparable effects, 17% different effects, and 39% no effects.

24 experimental models in basic research on high homeopathic potencies have been repeatedly investigated. 22 models were reproduced with comparable results, 6 models with different results, and repetition showed no results for 15 models. Independent reproductions with either comparable or different results were found for seven models.

Basic research models to study the effects of high dilutions that have subsequently led to reproduction studies can be identified in the following areas: biochemistry, cultured cells, plants, isolated immune cells, isolated organs, and whole animals.

Repeated studies yielding comparable effects

Some of these experimental models were independently investigated by different researchers, with comparable results:


Biochemistry
- Results on potentised ubiqinone were confirmed by the same working group.

Harisch G, Dittmann J (1997). Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Ubichinon Injeel und Injeel forte mit zellfreien Systemen. [Investigations of the effect of Ubichinon Injeel and Injeel forte with cell-free systems]. Biologische Medizin, 26: 99–104.

Harisch G, Dittmann J (1999). Aktivitätsbestimmungen der sauren Phosphatase in Gegenwart von Ubichinon-Einzelpotenzen und Ubichinon-Potenzmischungen. [Determination of activity of acid phosphatase in presence of single potencies and potency mixtures of ubiquinone]. Biologische Medizin, 28: 188–194.


- Results on potentised cAMP were confirmed by the same working group.

Harisch G, Dittmann J (1998). Unterschiedlicher Einfluß von cAMP-Potenzen und cAMP-Verdünnungen am Beispiel verschiedener Enzymsysteme. [Different influence of potencies and dilutions of cAMP exemplified on several enzyme systems]. Biologische Medizin, 27: 55–62.

Harisch G, Dittmann J (1999). Aktivitätsbestimmung der sauren Phosphatase in Gegenwart von cAMP-Einzelpotenzen und cAMP-Potenzmischungen. [Determination of activity of acid phosphatase in presence of single potencies and potency mistures of cAMP]. Biologische Medizin, 28: 4–8.


Plants
- Results on potentised silver nitrate were confirmed by others.

Kolisko L (1926). Physiologischer und physikalischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster Entitäten bei sieben Metallen. Dornach: Goetheanum Verlag.

Pongratz W, Endler PC (1994). Reappraisal of a classical botanical experiment in ultra high dilution research. In: Endler PC, Schulte J (eds). Ultra High Dilution: Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 121–128.

Pongratz W, Nograsek A, Endler PC (1998). Highly diluted agitated silver nitrate and wheat seedling development. Effect kinetics of a process of successive agitation phases. In: Schulte J, Endler PC (eds). Fundamental Research in Ultra High Dilution and Homeopathy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 155–187.

- Results on potentised arsenic were confirmed by the same working group.

Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M (1997). Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 86–89.

Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M, Betti L (2000). Statistical analysis of the effect of high dilutions of arsenic in a large dataset from a wheat germination model. British Homeopathic Journal, 89: 63–67. [PubMed]

Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Nani D, Borghini F, Peruzzi M, Betti L (2005). A biostatistical insight into the As(2)O(3) high dilution effects on the rate and variability of wheat seedling growth. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 12:277–283. [PubMed]

Nani D, Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Betti L (2007). The role of variability in evaluating ultra high dilution effects: considerations based on plant model experiments. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 14: 301–305. [PubMed]


- Results on potentised gibberellic acid and dwarf peas were confirmed by the same working group for one specific seed lot.

Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2004). Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11: 281–292. [PubMed]

Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kämpfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2008). Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16: 183–191. [PubMed]


- Results on potentised gibberellic acid and wheat were confirmed by the same working group.

Pfleger A (2008). Weizenkeimung unter dem Einfluss von homöopathisch zubereitetem Gibberellin (D30). Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Hofäcker J (2008). Der Einfluss der Intervalldauer bei der Herstellung ultrahochverdünnter homöopathischer Präparate (homöopathische Hochpotenzen). Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Reich C (2009). Über den Umgang mit hochpotenzierten Lösungen, Untersuchungen am Saatgutmodell. Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

 

Isolated immune cells

 

- Results on potentised antiserum against IgE were confirmed by the same working group.

Davenas E, Beauvais F, Amara J, Oberbaum M, Robinzon B, Miadonna A, Tedeschi A, Pomeranz B, Fortner P, Belon P, Sainte-Laudy J, Poitevin B, Benveniste J (1988). Human basophil de-granulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE, Nature, 333: 816–818. [PubMed]

Benveniste J, Davenas E, Ducot B, Cornillet B, Poitevin B, Spira A (1991). L’agitation de solutions hautement diluées n’indit pas d’activité biologique spécifique. [Agitating highly diluted solutions does not induce specific biological activity]. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences Paris, 312: 461–466.


- Results on potentised Apis mellifica were confirmed by the same working group.

Poitevin B, Aubin M, Benveniste J (1986). Approche d’une analyse quantitative de l’effet d’apis mellifica sur la dégranulation des basophiles humains in vitro. Innovation et Technologie en biologie et medecine, 7: 64–68.

Benveniste J, Davenas E, Ducot B, Cornillet B, Poitevin B, Spira A (1991). L’agitation de solutions hautement diluées n’indit pas d’activité biologique spécifique. [Agitating highly diluted solutions does not induce specific biological activity]. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences Paris, 312: 461–466.

Poitevin B, Davenas E, Benveniste J (1988). In vitro immunological degranulation of human basophils is modulated by lung histamine and Apis mellifica. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 25: 439–444. [PubMed]


- Results on potentised histamine were confirmed by the same working group and by others.

Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, Mannaioni PF, Sainte-Laudy J, Roberfroid M, Wiegant FA (1999). Inhibition of human basophil degranulation by successive histamine dilutions: results of a European multi-centre trial. Inflammation Research, 48 (Suppl 1):S17–18. [PubMed]

Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, Mannaioni PF, Roberfroid M, Sainte-Laudy J, Wiegant FA (2004). Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation. Inflammation Research, 53:181–188. [PubMed]

Brown V, Ennis M (2001). Flow-cytometric analysis of basophil activation: inhibition by histamine at conventional and homeopathic concentrations. Inflammation Research, 50 (Suppl 2): S47–S48.[PubMed]

Chirumbolo S, Brizzi M, Ortolani R, Vella A, Bellavite P (2009). Inhibition of CD203c membrane up-regulation in human basophils by high dilutions of histamine: a controlled replication study. Inflammation Research, 58:755-764. [PubMed]

Lorenz I, Schneider EM, Stolz P, Brack A, Strube J (2003). Sensitive flow cytometric method to test basophil activation influenced by homeopathic histamine dilution. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 10:316–324.[PubMed]

Lorenz I, Schneider EM, Stolz P, Brack A, Strube J (2003). Influence of the diluent on the effect of highly diluted histamine on basophil activation. Homeopathy, 92: 11–18. [PubMed]

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (1991). Biological activity of ultra low doses. II. Effect of ultra low doses of histamine on human basophil degranulation triggered by anti-IgE. In: Doutremepuich C (ed). Ultra Low Doses. London, Washington: Taylor & Francis, p. 139–144.

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (1993). Inhibition of human basophil activation by high dilutions of histamine. Agents Actions, 38: 525–527.

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (1996). Analysis of immunosuppressive activity of serial dilutions of histamine on human basophil activation by flow cytometry. Inflammation Research, 45: 33–34.[PubMed]

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (1997). Application of flow cytometry to the analysis of the immunosuppressive effect of histamine dilutions on human basophil activation: effect of cimetidine. Inflammation Research, 46: 27–28.[PubMed]

Sainte-Laudy J, Boujenaini N, Belon P (2008). Confirmation of biological effects of high dilutions. Effects of submolecular concentrations of histamine and 1-, 3- and 4-methylhistamines on human basophil activation. Inflammation Research, 57(S1): S01–S02. [PubMed]

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (2009). Inhibition of basophil activation by histamine: a sensitive and reproducible model for the study of the biological activity of high dilutions. Homeopathy, 98:186-97. [PubMed]

Sainte-Laudy J, Boudjedaini N, Belon P (2009). Differential effect of storage on molecular and ultra-molecular dilutions of histamine Inflammation Research, 58: Suppl 1:30-31. [PubMed]

 

Isolated organs

- Results on potentised atropa belladonna/atropine sulfate were confirmed by others.

Cristea A, Nicula S, Darie V (1997). Pharmacodynamic effects of very high dilutions of belladonna on the isolated rat duodenum. In: Bastide M (ed). Signals and Images. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 161–170.

Schmidt F, Süss WG, Nieber K (2004). In-vitro Testung von homöopathischen Verdünnungen. Biologische Medizin, 1: 32–37.

Radau K (2004). Materialwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen an pharmazeutischen Hilfsstoffen und ihre Bedeutung für die Herstellung homöopathischer Arzneimittel. Thesis. Fakultät für Biowissenschaften, Pharmazie und Psychologie, Universität Leipzig.

Michael S (2004). Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von homöopathischen Verdünnungen am isolierten Ileum der Ratte. Thesis. Institut für Pharmazie, Universität Leipzig.


Animals

- Consistent multicentre results on potentised thyroxin and frog metamorphosis were obtained and subsequently confirmed by the same working group with potentised thyroxin and by others with potentised thyroidinum.

Endler PC, Pongratz W, van Wijk R, Kastberger G, Haidvogl M (1991). Effects of highly diluted succussed thyroxin on metamorphosis of highland frogs. Berlin Journal of Research in Homeopathy, 1: 151–160.

Zausner-Lukitsch C (2001). Auswirkungen von homöopathisch zubereitetem Thyroxin auf die Metamorphosegeschwindigkeit von Rana temporaria unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Einzelhaltung und unterschiedlicher Methoden der Applikation. Thesis, Vienna University.

Zausner C, Lassnig H, Endler PC, et al (2001). Die Wirkung von homöopathisch zubereitetem Thyroxin auf die Metamorphose von Hochlandamphibien. Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Kontrollstudie. Perfusion, 17: 268–276.

Guedes JRP, Ferreira CM, Guimaraes HMB, Saldiva PHN, Capelozzi VL (2004). Homeopathically prepared dilution of Rana catesbeiana thyroid glands modifies its rate of metamorphosis. Homeopathy, 93: 132–137.[PubMed]

Welles SU, Suanjak-Traidl E, Weber S, et al (2007). Pretreatment with thyroxine (10e-8) and the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10e-30) on highland frogs – a multi-researcher study. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 14: 353–357. [PubMed]


- Consistent multicentre results on potentised thyroxin sealed in glass vials were obtained and confirmed by the same working group.

Endler PC, Pongratz W, Smith CW, Schulte J (1995). Non-molecular information transfer from thyroxin to frogs with regard to ‘homoeopathic’ toxicology. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 37: 259–260. [PubMed]

Hermann B (2005). Zur Wirkung von 'homöopathisch' zubereitetem Thyroxin (10e-30) in Glasphiolen auf die Metamorphose vorstimulierter Rana temporaria-Larven. Graz: Interuniversitäres Kolleg.

 

- Results on potentised thyroxin and frog climbing activity were confirmed by the same working group.

Endler PC, Pongratz W, Kastberger G, Wiegant FAC, Haidvogel M (1991). Climbing activity in frogs and the effect of highly diluted succussed thyroxine. British Homeopathic Journal, 80: 194–200.

Endler P, Pongratz W, Kastberger G, Wiegant F, Schulte J (1994). The effect of highly diluted agitated thyroxine on the climbing activity of frogs. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 36: 56–59.[PubMed]

 

- Results on potentised arsenic were confirmed by the same working group.

Mitra K, Kundu SN, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1998). Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: I. On rate of accumulation of arsenic in certain organs. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 6: 178–184.

Mitra K, Kundu SN, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1999). Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. On alterations of body weight, tissue weight and total protein. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7: 24–34. [PubMed]

Datta S, Mallick P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1999). Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: I. Comparative studies of pre-, post- and combined pre- and postoral administration and comparative efficacy of two microdoses. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7: 62–75. [PubMed]

Datta S, Mallick P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1999). Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. Comparative efficacy of an antibiotic, actinomycin D alone and in combination with either of two microdoses. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7:156–163. [PubMed]

Kundu SN, Mitra K, Bukhsh AR (2000). Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum-album-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: III. Enzymatic changes and recovery of tissue damage in liver. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 8:76-81. [PubMed]

Kundu SN, Mitra K, Khuda Bukhsh AR (2000). Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum-Album-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: IV. Pathological changes, protein profiles, and content of DNA and RNA. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 8:157–165. [PubMed]

Mallick P, Mallick JC, Guha B, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2003). Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 3:7. [PubMed]

Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2007). A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album 200, can ameliorate genotoxicity induced by repeated injections of arsenic trioxide in mice. Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine, 54: 370-376.[PubMed]

Banerjee P, Bhattacharyya SS, Pathak S, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2008), Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, arsenicum album, to ameliorate toxicity included by repeated sublethal injections of arsenic trioxide in mice. Pathobiology, 75: 156-170. [PubMed]

Banerjee P, Bhattacharyya SS, Pathak S, Boujedaini N, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2009). Evidences of protective potentials of microdoses of ultra-high diluted arsenic trioxide in mice receiving repeated injections of arsenic trioxide. Evicence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. doi:10.1093/ecam/nen.090. [PubMed]


- Results on potentised mercury were confirmed by the same working group.

Larue F, Cal JC, Tetau M, Buisard AM, Guillemain J, Cambar J (1985). Mise en evidence de l’effet Protecteur de differentes dilutions de mercurius corrosivus. Cahiers de Biothérapie, 88: 71–74.

Larue F, Cal JC, Guillemain J, Cambar J (1986). Influence de la durée de prétraitement sur l’effet de mercurius corrosivus vis-à-vis de la toxicité induite par le chlorure mercurique chez la souris. Homéopathie Française 1986; 74: 275–281.

Larue F, Cal JC, Guillemain J, Cambar J (1986). Variations saisonnières et circadiennes de l’efficacité du prétraitement par mercurius corrosivur 15CH vis-à-vis de la toxicité induite par le chlorure mercurique. Bulletin du Groupe d’Etude des Rhythmes Biologiques, 18: 8–9.

Cal JC, Larue F,Guillemain J, Cambar J (1986). Chronobiological approach of protective effect of Mercurius corrosivus against mercury-induced nephrotoxicity. Annual Review of Chronopharmacology, 3: 99–103.

 

- Results on potentised phosphorus were confirmed by others.

Bildet J (1975). Étude de l’action de différentes dilutions homéopathiques de phosphore blanc (Phosphorus) sur l’hépatite toxique du rat. Thèse, Université de Bordeaux II.

Andresen M (1985). Zytosolische und mitochondriale Effekte einer Intoxikation mit CCl4 am Beispiel des Lebergewebes der Ratte. Einfluss von Phosphorus D6 und Phosphorus D30. Thesis, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover.

 

- Results on potentised acetyl salicylic acid were confirmed by the same working group.

Doutremepuich C, de Seze O, Le Roy D, Lalanne MC, Anne MC (1990). Aspirin at very ultra low dosage in healthy volunteers: Effects on bleeding time, platelet aggregation and coagulation. Haemostasis, 20: 99–105.[PubMed]

Doutremepuich C, Aguejouf O, Pintigny D, Sertillanges M. and De Seze O (1994). Thrombogenic properties of ultra-low-doses of acetylsalicylic acid in a vessel model of laser-induced thrombus formation. Thrombosis Research, 76: 225–229. [PubMed]

Belougne-Malfatti E, Aguejouf O, Doutremepuich F, Belon P, Doutrempuich C (1998). Combination of two doses of acetyl salcylic acid: experimental study of arterial thrombosis. Thrombosis Research, 90: 215–221.[PubMed]

Aguejouf O, Malfatti E, Belon P, Doutremepuich C (2000). Time related neutralization of two doses acetyl salicylic acid. Thrombosis Research,100: 317–323.[PubMed]

Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Belon P, Doutremepuich C (2005). Platelet aggregation in portal hypertension and its modification by ultra-low doses of aspirin. Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, 34: 29–34.[PubMed]

Doutremepuich C, Aguejouf O, Eizayaga FX, Desplat V (2007). Reverse effect of aspirin: is the prothrombotic effect after aspirin discontinuation mediated by cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition? Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, 36: 40–44.[PubMed]

 

Repeated studies resulting in different effects

Other intents of reproduction led to interesting, statistically significant, but modified results:

Plants
- A different result was found compared to Betti et al. on potentised arsenic for meta-analysis of all experiments.

Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M (1997). Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 86–89.

Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A (2005). The effects of a 45x potency of Arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth – a reproduction trial. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 12: 284–291.[PubMed]

Lahnstein L, Binder M, Thurneysen A, Frei-Erb M, Betti L, Peruzzi M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S (2009). Isopathic treatment effects of Arsenicum album 45x on wheat seedling growth – further reproduction trials. Homeopathy, 98: 189–207.[PubMed]


- A different result was found on potentised gibberellic acid compared to Baumgartner et al. for one specific seed lot of dwarf peas.

Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2004). Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11: 281–292.[PubMed]

Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kämpfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2008). Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16: 183–191.[PubMed]

- A different result was found on potentised gibberellic acid compared to Pfleger for wheat growth at different times of the year.

Pfleger A (2008). Weizenkeimung unter dem Einfluss von homöopathisch zubereitetem Gibberellin (D30). Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Thieves K (2009). Einfluss von homöopathisch zubereitetem Gibberellin (10–30) auf die Sprosslänge bei unterschiedlichen Gewichtsgrössen von Weizensaatgut. Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Reischl T (2009). Wirkung mentaler Projektion auf Ultrahochverdünnungen. Ein Weizenkeimungs-Gibberellin-Homöopathie-Experiment. Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.


Isolated immune cells
- A different result was found on potentised histamine compared to Sainte-Laudy et al.

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (1991). Biological activity of ultra low doses. II. Effect of ultra low doses of histamine on human basophil degranulation triggered by anti-IgE. In: Doutremepuich C (ed). Ultra Low Doses. London, Washington: Taylor & Francis, p. 139–144.

Sainte-Laudy J (2001). Stimulatory effect of high dilutions of histamine on activation of human basophils induced by anti-IgE. Inflammation Research, 50: 63–64.[PubMed]
Lorenz I, Schneider EM, Stolz P, Brack A, Strube J (2003). Influence of the diluent on the effect of highly diluted histamine on basophil activation. Homeopathy, 92: 11- 18.
[PubMed]

Repeated studies yielding no effect

Further studies did not reveal any significant effects:

Biochemistry
- Effects of potentised mercury chloride on the enzyme diastase compared to Persson et al.

Persson WM, Ginsberg AS (1932). Die Einwirkung von Mikrodosen homoöopathischer Arzneimittel (chemischer oder pflanzlicher) auf die Fermente Urease und Diastase. [The action of microdoses of homeopathic remedies (of chemicals and plants) on the enzymes urease and diastase]. Deutsches Zeitschrift für Homöopathie, 11: 97-106

Bluth M (2005). In-vitro-Forschung mit homöopathischen Potenzen. Ein systematischer Review und eigene Versuche mit zellfreien Systemen [In-vitro-research on homeopathic potencies. A systematic review and own experiments with cell-free systems]. Thesis. Berlin: Institut für Sozialmedizin, Epidemiologie und Gesundheitsökonomie; Charité-Universitätsmedizin.

- Effects of potentised mercury chloride on amylase compared to Sukul et al.

Sukul NC, Sukul A, Sinhababu SP (2002). Potentized mercuric chloride and mercuric iodide enhance alpha-amylase activity in vitro. Homeopathy, 91: 217–220.[PubMed]

Bluth M (2005). In-vitro-Forschung mit homöopathischen Potenzen. Ein systematischer Review und eigene Versuche mit zellfreien Systemen [In-vitro-research on homeopathic potencies. A systematic review and own experiments with cell-free systems]. Thesis. Berlin: Institut für Sozialmedizin, Epidemiologie und Gesundheitsökonomie; Charité-Universitätsmedizin.


Cultured cells
- Effects of potentised tumour necrosis factor compared to Carmine.

Carmine TC (1997). Effects of high potencies of tumour necrosis factor alpha on H202 production in cultured neuroblastoma cells by enhanced luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (ECL): a possible system for investigating the biological significance of homeopathic high potencies. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 67–72.

Herberth G., Pison U (1999). Homöopathische Arzneimittel in zellbiologischen Systemen [Homeopathic remedies in cell-biological systems]. In: Albrecht H., Frühwald M., editors. Jahrbuch der Karl und Veronika Carstens-Stiftung, Band 5 (1998). Essen, p. 77–95.

 

Plants
- Effects of potentised copper sulfate compared to Graviou et al.

Graviou E, Biron MA (1971). Action d’une 15e CH de sulfate de cuivre sur la culture des Chlorella vulgaris. Annales Homéopathiques Françaises, 7: 539–548.

Moss VA, Roberts JA, Simpson HKL (1977). The effect of copper sulphate on the growth of the alga Chlorella. British Homeopathic Journal, 66: 169–176.


- Effects of potentised silver nitrate (one researcher in a multicentre trial) compared to Kolisko.

Kolisko L (1926). Physiologischer und physikalischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster Entitäten bei sieben Metallen. Dornach: Goetheanum Verlag.

Pongratz W, Nograsek A, Endler PC (1998). Highly diluted agitated silver nitrate and wheat seedling development. Effect kinetics of a process of successive agitation phases. In: Schulte J, Endler PC (eds). Fundamental Research in Ultra High Dilution and Homeopathy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 155–187.

- Effects of potentised arsenic compared to Betti et al. for single experimental series.

Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M (1997). Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 86–89.

Lahnstein L, Binder M, Thurneysen A, Frei-Erb M, Betti L, Peruzzi M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S (2009). Isopathic treatment effects of Arsenicum album 45x on wheat seedling growth – further reproduction trials. Homeopathy, 98: 189–207.[PubMed]


- Effects of potentised gibberellic acid compared to Baumgartner et al. for two specific seed lots.
Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2004). Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11: 281–292.[PubMed]

Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kämpfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2008). Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16: 183–191.[PubMed]


Isolated immune cells
- Effects of potentised antiserum against IgE compared to Davenas et al.

Davenas E, Beauvais F, Amara J, Oberbaum M, Robinzon B, Miadonna A, Tedeschi A, Pomeranz B, Fortner P, Belon P, Sainte-Laudy J, Poitevin B, Benveniste J (1988). Human basophil de-granulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE, Nature, 333: 816–818. [PubMed]

Ovelgönne JH, Bol AWJM, Hop WCJ, van Wijk R (1992). Mechanical agitation of very dilute antiserum against IgE has no effect on basophil staining properties. Experientia, 48: 504–508. [PubMed]

Hirst SJ, Hayes NA, Burridge J, Pearce FL, Foreman JC (1993). Human basophil degranulation is not triggered by very dilute antiserum against human IgE. Nature, 366: 525–527. [PubMed]

- Effects of potentised histamine compared to Sainte-Laudy et al.

Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P (1991). Biological activity of ultra low doses. II. Effect of ultra low doses of histamine on human basophil degranulation triggered by anti-IgE. In: Doutremepuich C (ed). Ultra Low Doses. London, Washington: Taylor & Francis, p. 139–144.

Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, Mannaioni PF, Roberfroid M, Sainte-Laudy J, Wiegant FA (2004). Histamine dilutions modulate basophile activation. Inflammation Research, 53: 181–188. [PubMed]

Guggisberg AG, Baumgartner S, Tschopp CM, Heusser P (2005). Replication study concerning the effects of homeopathic dilutions of histamine on human basophil degranulation in vitro. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13: 91–100. [PubMed]

- Effects of potentised Phytolacca compared to Colas et al.

Colas H, Aubin M, Picard P, Lebecq JC, Bastide JM (1984). Inhibition du test de transformation lymphoblastique (TTL) à la phytohémagglutinine (PHA) par Phytolacca americana en dilutions homéopathiques. [Inhibition of lymphoblast transformation test (LTT) by phythemagglutinine (PHA) through Phytolacca americana in homeopathic dilutions]. Homéopathie Française, 72: 219–224.

Bildet J, Dupont H, Aubin M, et al (1984). Action in vitro de dilutions infinitesimales de Phytolacca americana sur la transformation lymphoblastiques (TTL) à la phytohémagglutininec. [In vitro action of infinitesimale dilutions of Phytolacca americana on the transformation of lymphoblasts by phytohemagglutinine]. Homéopathie Française, 72: 225–230.

- Effects of potentised nitrosoguanidine compared to Francis et al.

Francis AJ, Anderson D, Fisher P (1990). Further studies of the ‘adaptive’ repair response in human lymphocytes after treatment with MNNG (Abstract). Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 15(S17): 69.

Anderson D, Edwards AJ, Fisher P, Lovell DP (1999). Statistical analysis of adaptive response in sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes after treatment with very low and extremely low doses of N-methyl-N0-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine using a study design to control variability. British Homeopathic Journal, 88: 7–16. [PubMed]

 

Animals
- Effects of potentised thyroxine (one researcher in a multicentre trial) compared to Endler et al.

Endler PC, Pongratz W, van Wijk R, Kastberger G, Haidvogl M (1991). Effects of highly diluted succussed thyroxin on metamorphosis of highland frogs. Berlin Journal of Research in Homeopathy, 1: 151–160.

Welles SU, Suanjak-Traidl E, Weber S, et al (2007). Pretreatment with thyroxine (10e-8) and the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10e-30) on highland frogs – a multi-researcher study. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 14: 353–357. [PubMed]

- Effects of potentised thyroxine sealed in glass vials compared to Endler et al.

Endler PC, Pongratz W, Smith CW, Schulte J (1995). Non-molecular information transfer from thyroxin to frogs with regard to ‘homoeopathic’ toxicology. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 37: 259–260. [PubMed]

Endler PC, Heckmann C, Lauppert E, et al (1998). The metamorphosis of amphibian and information of thyroxin storage via the bipolar fluid water. In: Schulte J, Endler PC (eds). Fundamental Research in Ultra High Dilution and Homoeopathy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 155–187.

Dieterle D (1999). Überprüfung einer Hypothese zum indirekten Einfluß potenzierter Thyroxinlösungen auf die Metamorphosegeschwindigkeit von Rana temporaria. Thesis, University of Tubingen.

- Effects of potentised Plumbum compared to Fisher.

Fisher P (1982). The treatment of experimental lead intoxication in rats by penicillinamine and plumbum met. Proceedings of the 35th congress of the Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis, Brighton, 320–332.

Fisher P, House I, Belon P, Turner P (1987). The influence of the homeopathic remedy Plumbum metallicum on the excretion kinetics of lead in rats. Human Toxicology, 6: 321–324. [PubMed]

 

Full article on repeated individual high potency studies:
Endler P, Thieves K, Reich C, Matthiessen P, Bonamin L, Scherr C, Baumgartner S (2010). Repetitions of fundamental research models for homeopathically prepared dilutions beyond 10(-23): a bibliometric study. Homeopathy, 99:25-36. [PubMed]

Document Actions
Share |